ciao a tutti.....
Oggi vi raconto di una guerra, molto breve, dai più dimenticata.
Nel mese di ottobre 1973 le forze armate di Siria e Egitto (appoggiate da contingenti di altri paesi arabi quali Kuwait, Marocco, Libia, Iraq, ecc.) attaccarono simultaneamente lungo il canale di Suez (gli Egiziani, il confine era lì con il Sinai sotto controllo Israeliano) e sulle alture del Golan i Siriani.
La pianificazione fu ben curata (per gli standard degli eserciti arabi di allora) e inizialmente la sorpresa riuscì.
Fu un test che permise ai sovietici di testare gli ultimi ritrovati in fatto di sistemi d'arma ad esempio il missile controcarro filoguidato Sagger che, usato da team di tre uomini, fece strage di carri israeliani nei primi giorni di combattimento (soprattuto nella zona del Sinai) ed anche se con meno successo il carro di costruzione sovietica T62 (cannone ad anima liscia da 115 mm) che aveva un ottimo pezzo (studiato per la lotta controcarro) ma con una serie di sistemi di puntamento (e di addestramento) non all'altezza dei mezzi in dotazione a Tsal (Esercito israeliano).
Altra cosa abbastanza nota e che, dopo l'effetto sorpresa iniziale, una volta entrata a regime la mobilitazione israeliana (che è mutuata da quella svizzera per chi non lo sapesse) e con un bel po' di mezzi "made in USA" arrivati dalle dotazioni della 7^ armata USA in Germania Occidentale, la situazione si capovolse con l'esercito siriano messo in situazione di non nuocere (e con avanguardie israeliane in avvicinamento a Damasco) e con gli egiziani virtualmente distrutti dopo i combattimenti a ovest del canale (Chinese farm) con Cairo a rischio di occupazione da parte delle forze di Tel Aviv.
La parte meno nota è relativa al fatto che gli israeliani non erano molto convinti di fermarsi per trattare (si tratta meglio se occupi la capitale del tuo nemico) e che sembra avessero fatto, inizialmente, "orecchie da mercante". L'URSS decise di forzare i tempi mettendo in allerta le proprie forze armate (in Europa orientale), preparando all'azione le sue 7 (!!!) divisioni aereotrasportate una delle quali veniva ridislocata presso l'aereoporto di Belgrado (alla faccia del non allineato Tito).
Qui informazioni sul Sagger
http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land ... sagger.htm
Qui una spolverata sul T62
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ ... a/t-62.htm
E di seguito un'analisi in inglese sui risvolti internazionali relativi al conflitto:
Effects-Based Operations: The Yom Kippur War Case Study
Steven M. Beres, Shannon M. Corey, Eric S. Jaffe, and Jonathan E. Tarter
Evidence Based Research, Inc.
1595 Spring Hill Rd.
Vienna, VA 22182
The end of the Cold War and rise of the Information Age challenged the United States to
re-examine its strategic approach to military and political conflicts. No longer fearful of
a nuclear showdown with Moscow and armed with new sophisticated technology, the
United States began to prepare to fight wars of a lesser scope than they had previously
One thing that did not change about the United States approach to military planning was
the fundamental role reserved for diplomacy and operations other than war (OOTW) in
strategic planning. These operations are now commonly referred to as effects-based
operations, or EBO. USJFCOM defines EBO as, "A process for obtaining a desired
strategic outcome or "effect" on the enemy, through the synergistic, multiplicative, and
cumulative application of the full range of military and nonmilitary capabilities at the
tactical, operational, and strategic levels." While the term effects-based operation is
new, the concept`s logic has been used by military planners for centuries. After all, if
military operations are planned by rational actors, what operation is not effects-based?
Military planners should theoretically always intend to achieve positive results. Even
military operations that the Clausewitzian trinity would label as irrational – the
primordial violence provoked by hatred and enmity – are arguably effects-based, as they
often intend to devastate or demoralize the enemy.
The importance of effects-based operations as a viable military concept is quickly
becoming recognized by DoD planners. This is, perhaps, in part because the concept is
new in name only. In 1973, the Nixon administrations` use of U.S. political and military
forces on October 23rd – 24th successfully shaped Soviet behavior and thus provides an
excellent example of a successful modern day effects-based campaign. This paper is a
case study of American efforts at the height of tension between the superpowers during
the Yom Kippur War. It will examine the important aspects of effects-based operations
using the DIME construct as a tool for assessment.
Effects-based operations (EBO) is not a new concept. Strategic leaders have used EBO`s
principles of war-planning to solve foreign policy crises without explicitly
acknowledging it as a guiding principle. The diplomatic, information, military and
economic (DIME) construct has been chosen to analyze the 1973 Yom Kippur War
because it effectively organizes and classifies the chronological steps of a historical
event, an essential element to assessing any EBO.
The 1973 Yom Kippur War lends itself to analysis as an EBO because it highlights the
threat of nuclear war. The relevant actors knew the likely outcome of the application of
nuclear forces – mutually assured destruction. Because the potential outcome was so
extreme, each state actor made strategic moves that they knew the other side would see
clearly and were less likely to misinterpret. The nuclear dimension exaggerated the
actions of each actor, thus making their actions more easily discernible than other cases
of diplomacy.1 While not all decisions were recorded, there are some declassified
documents that describe the high-level negotiations that occurred during the crisis.
There is no real consensus on a definition for effects-based operations. For the purposes
of this paper, the definition will combine parts of the definitions used by U.S. Joint
Forces Command and Ed Smith in Effects Based Operations. EBO, then, is a process for
obtaining a desired strategic outcome or "effect" on the enemy by shaping the behavior of
The story of the 1973 Middle East crisis began with the Six-Day War. On June 5, 1967,
Israel launched a preemptive air assault near the Sinai Peninsula, crippling Egypt`s air
force. In six days, Israel wrested control of the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, captured
Jerusalem's Old City from Jordan and gained the strategic Golan Heights from Syria.
The Suez Canal was also closed by the war. Israel declared that it would not give up
control of Jerusalem and the other captured territories until significant progress was made
in Arab-Israeli relations. These captured areas became known as the occupied territories.
The Security Council passed UN Resolution 242 calling for Israeli withdrawal. Both
sides, however, declared their intent to continue fighting and the region remained
volatile. The United States sided with Israel while the Soviet Union supported Arab
During the 1960s and early 1970s, the Arabs and Israelis engaged in sporadic fighting.
President Nasser of Egypt died in 1970 and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat, who vowed
to fight Israel and win back the territories lost in 1967. In 1973, the Arab states believed
that their concerns were being ignored. On October 6, 1973, on the Jewish holy day of
Yom Kippur, Egypt and Syria, led by Sadat, staged a two-pronged assault on Israel.
After three weeks of fighting, and after the U.S. dramatically re-supplied the Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) with ammunition, the Israelis managed to push the Arab forces
back beyond the original line.
Meanwhile, the two superpowers continued their geopolitical machinations while the
Middle East remained embroiled in conflict and tension. By the 1970s, the two
superpowers had developed a close friendship and were keenly aware of each others`
actions. During the late 1960's, the United States began to pursue a policy of détente
which resulted in a general reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union and the
United States. U.S. President Richard Nixon chose to pursue detente as a proactive
engagement with communist governments rather than the previous policy of containment.
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger played a major role in the development of this
1 The analysis of the case study is restricted to the higher level decisions that were made with consequences
that could be assessed and related to a previous action or event.
2 Joint Forces Command and Ed Smith, Effects Based Operations, CCRP: 2002.
Kissinger, the Double-Cross Risk, and Hostilities
Hoping to find a solution to the 1973 war, Henry Kissinger flew to Moscow on Oct. 20th
and agreed with the Soviets to seek a cease-fire in the region. On October 22nd, the
secretary made a visit to Israel for a private meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Golda
Meir and her Cabinet in an attempt to persuade Israel to accept the terms of the cease-fire
that had been negotiated between the Soviets and the U.S. Israel resisted the agreement
because they refused to forgo destruction of the Egyptian Third Army. The IDF had
encircled the Third Army on the Sinai, and they did not necessarily desire to negotiate
with Egypt. No changes were allowed to be made in the language of the agreement.
Speculation on what actually happened during Kissinger`s talks with the Israeli Cabinet
varies. In the terms of the agreement, both sides called for a 12 hour deadline for
implementation of a cease-fire. Some observers claim that Secretary Kissinger
encouraged Israel to believe that the deadline was flexible and that Washington was
prepared to let them finish the encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army. Other versions
of the story claim that Kissinger put pressure on Meir and her advisers to strictly adhere
to the agreement terms and that both the U.S. and Soviet Union opposed destruction of
the Egyptian Army.3
Kissinger departed Israel believing that the conflict was defused and that the war would
end. When he landed in Washington on October 23rd, Israel seemed to be ignoring the
cease-fire and instead had continued to encircle the Egyptian army. Soviet Premier
Leonid Brezhnev sent a hotline message to President Nixon confirming that Moscow felt
betrayed. He urged the U.S. to "move decisively to stop the violations," and implied that
the U.S. might have collaborated in Israeli actions. When Kissinger learned that the
Israelis had completed surrounding the Third Army after the cease-fire deadline, he
reportedly exclaimed, "My God, the Soviets will think I double-crossed them. And in
their shoes, who wouldn't?" 4
The crisis began on the morning of Oct. 24th. The Nixon administration had little time to
formulate a complex plan to deal with the escalating crisis.5 Nixon convened the
Washington Special Action Group (WSAG), which was a National Security Council
committee designed to deal with serious crises. Participants in the meeting included
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Defense Secretary James Schlesinger, CIA Director
William Colby, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Thomas Moorer, and Deputy
National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft.
When the WASG met on the morning of the 24th, Israel and Egypt were still fighting
despite two U.N. Security Council resolutions calling for a cease-fire. Fighting had
3 Barry M. Blechman and Douglas M. Hart, "Nuclear Weapons and the 1973 Middle East Crisis," The Use
of Force: Third Edition, eds. Robert J. Art and Kenneth Waltz, the University Press of America: 1988. Pg.
4 Quoted in ibid 310.
5 Ibid 309.
ceased in the north between Israel and Syria, but in the south, the IDF had encircled the
entire Egyptian Third Army. The Israelis wanted to use the Third Army as a bargaining
chip in future peace talks and would not bow to pressure from Washington to abide by a
The Soviets moved quickly and prepared to intervene on the side of the beleaguered
Egyptians. They realized that the Americans had raised the stakes by re-supplying the
Israelis and were preparing to react accordingly. They took several military steps that
they intended for the U.S. to pick up from their signals intelligence (SIGINT) networks.
On March 24th, Moscow placed four airborne divisions on alert, which added to the three
that had been alerted earlier that month. The Soviets has also set up an airborne command
post in the southern Soviet Union. In addition, several air force units were alerted.
Reports also indicated that at least one of the divisions and a squadron of transport planes
had been moved from the Soviet Union to an airbase in Yugoslavia. The Soviets also had
seven amphibious warfare craft with naval infantry deployed in the Mediterranean. With
some 40,000 combat troops6 ready for action, the Soviets posed a serious threat to the
military balance on the Sinai.
All of these military alerts caused an increase in Soviet communications, which was
picked up by the U.S. SIGINT collection system, thus informing Washington of
Moscow's actions. The Soviets knew this, and deliberately wanted these alerts to send a
clear signal to the U.S.
The Soviet threat was amplified by the risk of a nuclear attack. The U.S. intelligence
community had been tracking a Soviet ship carrying radioactive material that had entered
the Mediterranean Sea via the Bosporus Strait on Oct. 22nd. Three days later, it docked at
Port Said at the Mediterranean entrance to the Suez Canal. Unconfirmed rumors lead to
speculation that the radioactive material consisted of nuclear warheads. The warheads
were believed to be sent to a brigade of Soviet SCUD missiles previously deployed
outside of Cairo.7
On Oct. 24th, President Anwar Sadat appealed to the U.S. and the Soviet Union to
establish a joint peacekeeping force, a move that Washington was absolutely unwilling to
accept. President Nixon`s response, in the form of a note drafted by Kissinger was blunt:
"Should the two great nuclear powers be called upon to provide force, it would introduce
an extremely dangerous potential for great-power rivalry in the area."8
At the same time, Washington feared unilateral military action by the Soviets. Not only
were the Soviets alerting their forces, but Brezhnev stated in his response to Sadat`s
request that the Soviet Union would be forced to take unilateral action to impose a ceasefire
if the United States was unwilling to participate in a joint mission.
6 Ibid 311.
8 Quoted in ibid 312.
After convening a session of the WASG, Nixon ordered a military response to send the
message to the Soviets that their unilateral action would not be tolerated. By midnight on
Oct. 25th, he ordered the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to raise the alert of U.S.
forces to Defense Condition 3 (DEFCON III).9 In addition, more than 50 B-52 strategic
bombers were ordered to move from their base in Guam to the continental United States,
placing them closer to the crisis zone. Airborne tankers, which provided the lifeline for
long range strategic bombing missions, were dispersed and prepared for action. In
another show of force, Nixon ordered the carrier USS John F. Kennedy into the
Mediterranean. The 82nd Airborne Division was put on alert and told to be ready to
deploy by 6:00 a.m. on the 25th.
The hope was that these alerts would deliver a message to the Soviets. Washington never
publicly announced the alerts, but instead counted on Soviet SIGINT networks to
intercept the increased signals traffic they generated. The U.S. used communications and
other signals intelligence as the major way to transmit the threat designed to prevent a
Soviet intervention in the Sinai.10
The U.S. chose to use diplomatic means to threaten the Soviet Union with nuclear action.
Washington responded to Brezhnev`s note with a reply given to U.N. Ambassador
Anatoly Dobrynin early on the 25th. "We must view your suggestions of unilateral action
as a matter of gravest concern, involving incalculable consequences," the note read.11 It
then made reference to the 1973 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
"In the spirit of our agreements, this is the time for acting not unilaterally, but in harmony
and with cool heads." The note then repeated the possibility of "incalculable
consequences" if the Soviets intervened unilaterally.
Kissinger again alluded to the threat of nuclear war during a press conference at noon on
the 25th at the State Dept. "We possess, each of us, nuclear arsenals capable of
annihilating humanity. We, both of us, have a special duty to see to it that confrontations
are kept within bounds that do not threaten civilized life."12 Kissinger`s statement, the
response to Brezhnev`s note, and the DEFCON III status heightening demonstrated to the
Soviets that the U.S. was committed to preserving its strategic objectives in the Middle
The U.S. actions proved to be successful. The crisis was over within hours of Kissinger`s
press conference. The Soviet ambassador to the U.N. was ordered to halt his actions to
create a bilateral peacekeeping mission on the Sinai and an international peacekeeping
force, which did not include U.S. or Soviet peacekeepers, was ratified by the Security
Council later on the 25th. Moscow, however, was allowed to deploy 70 observers to
verify the cease-fire agreement. At the same time, the Third Army escaped destruction
and the Soviets did not send forces to Egypt.
9 There are five defense readiness conditions (DEFCONS). DEFCON 1 puts U.S. forces at maximum force
readiness, i.e. a state of war.
10 Blechman and Hart 317.
11 Quoted in ibid 317.
12 Quoted in ibid 317.
U.S. Strategic Objectives
The U.S. was willing to use the nuclear threat as a bargaining tool during the 1973
Middle East crisis because the stakes were so high. Blechman and Hart argue that "a
threat of nuclear war is credible only in certain situations – those in which the nation`s
most important interests are evidently at stake."13 Nixon and Kissinger felt that the threat
posed by Soviet unilateral action could undermine the delicate Cold War balance of
power. President Nixon acknowledged the gravity of the situation when he remarked in
the White House on Oct. 17th, 1973, "No one is more keenly aware of the stakes: oil and
our strategic position."14
It was important to Kissinger and Nixon to maintain the global perception of the United
States as a superpower, especially in the wake of United States weakness demonstrated in
Vietnam. Kissinger outlined the American position on Oct. 23rd during a staff meeting at
the Dept. of State. "The judgment was that if another American-armed country were
defeated by Soviet armed countries, the inevitable lessons that anybody around the world
would have to draw, is to rely increasingly on the Soviet Union."15
Kissinger also pointed out that an Egyptian victory would "undermine the position in the
Middle East, even in countries that were not formally opposing us, such as Saudi Arabia
and Jordan, if the radical Arab states [Egypt and Syria] supported by the Soviet Union
scored a great victory over the Israelis."16
Effects Based Operations: The DIME Construct
Methods of EBO assessment are not well-established because the concept is relatively
new.17 The diplomatic, information, military and economic (DIME) model, however,
provides a useful methodology. It is broad enough to encompass the dimensions of the
established definition used in this paper. The DIME model serves as a relatively simple
representation of actionable arenas.
The DIME terms are defined as follows:
â?¢ Diplomatic: Negotiation between nations though official channels.
â?¢ Information: Knowledge of specific events or situations that has been gathered
or received by communicating intelligence or news.
â?¢ Military: Of or relating to the armed forces.
13 Pg. 307
14 Memorandum of Conversation, the White House, Oct. 17, 1973. Unclassified on Aug. 20, 2003. The
document can be found at the National Security Archive. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv. Besides Kissinger and
Nixon, Deputy Secretary of Defense Kenneth Rush, Deputy Secretary of Defense William Clements;
Director of Central Intelligence William Colby, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Thomas
Moorer were in attendance.
15 Henry Kissinger, "Secretary`s Staff Meeting," Oct. 23, 1973. Declassified on March 3, 1998. Available
at the National Security Archive.
17 As noted earlier, EBO is not a new concept, only a newly-recognized concept.
â?¢ Economic: Of or returning to the production, development, and management of a
nation`s national wealth.
This case study focuses on events that occurred between when Sadat delivered his letter
to the U.N. at 3:00 p.m. on the 24th the end of the crisis on the 25th. This period focuses
on the escalating and subsequently defused tension between the two superpowers. The
timeline and sequencing of events is listed in figure 1.
The American and Soviet response to Sadat`s letter were different. The reasons for this
divergence were spelled out in Kissinger`s letter to Brezhnev. It stated, "should the two
great nuclear powers be called upon to provide forces, it would introduce an extremely
dangerous potential for great-power rivalry in the area."18 This stated intent is the basis of
the US`s overall desired effect. The means for attaining the effect fell within the DIME
The actions during the crisis can be broken down into seven major actions/reactions.
These are outlined on the sequence of events in figure 1. These major actions/reactions
1- Sadat proposed joint U.S./Soviet peacekeeping force (impetus for the escalation)
2- USSR accepted Sadat's proposal
3- U.S. rejected the proposal
4- Brezhnev sent a note saying the Soviet Union would consider reacting
5- U.S. raised alert level to DEFCON 3 and activated strategic forces.
6- USSR signals intelligence networks picked up U.S. alert
7- U.S. responded to Brezhnev`s note with a note to Amb. Dobrynin
8- Kissinger held a press conference to tell the world about the crisis
9- It was determined that a U.N. peacekeeping force will intervene excluding the
major superpowers (U.S. and USSR)
18 Quoted in Blechman and Hart 312.
Figure 1: The DIME construct displayed over time
The conflict in this case study was between the Soviet's and the American's different
view of appropriate intervention in the Arab-Israeli conflict. The natural starting point of
the conflict was when the U.S. declined Sadat`s request to become involved, because this
was when the U.S. and USSR`s views of the level of superpower involvement diverged.
Since this case study exclusively examined U.S. actions (as opposed to Soviet actions),
Kissinger`s refusal of the joint force is where the analysis began. This action was
characterized as a diplomatic action within the DIME model. There was no indication
that this was intended to inform anyone other than national diplomats of the American
stance on the situation. This action led to Brezhnev sending a note to Kissinger. This
action/reaction cycle flowed throughout the analysis. The structure of the timeline was
designed to illustrate a relationship between actions and reactions. This was a basic
building block highlighted in Effects Based Operations.19
As the cycle evolved, it became apparent how the environment -- diplomatic,
information, and military -- proceeded from decision point (or action point) to decision
point throughout the crisis. This case study focused on the two superpowers, and thus all
19 Smith 207.
other variables were treated as exogenous factors that played into the general
environment. This is not to say that these third parties were not important, they in fact
were a dimension of effects-based operations because they helped guide the options
available to the decision makers. Third party involvement was so important that it was
indeed the third party (the U.N.) that diffused the situation.
In the context of this case study, the superpowers paid close attention to how their actions
would be perceived in the court of global opinion. The perception among citizens of third
party nations was discussed during the press conference held on the 25th. This was
intended to send a message to the Soviets about the gravity of the situation, as
demonstrated by Kissinger's reference to the superpowers' nuclear arsenals.
The categorization of the actions into their respective areas as denoted by the DIME
concept was determined by the established definitions. Some actions could have been
binned into two or more categories. For example, one could argue that the U.S. alert was
issued to send a message to the Soviets rather than to increase force readiness. It can be
assumed that the Soviets would know about the alert on or about the same time the U.S.
forces were notified. This in effect sent the message to the Soviets that the U.S. was very
serious about the potential of armed conflict. For the purposes of this case study,
however, each event was binned in only one DIME category.
The final analysis of this case study reveals some interesting phenomena. Breaking down
the actions into a structure similar to a decision tree, one realizes that two actions often
occur simultaneously. Note the correlation between the military actions and the
diplomatic actions. We speculate that due to the potential for a rapid escalation to the use
of nuclear force, each country wanted to demonstrate seriousness but allow for a clear
path toward diplomatic resolution. This allowed for a leader to "opt out" with ease.
This case study of effects-based operations assists in understanding the concepts
associated with the theory. This understanding is necessary to think through the
action/reaction sequences that enable decision makers to think beyond the traditional
means of achieving desired effects and in essence utilizing every conceivable method for
creating favorable situations and achieving desired effects.
The Middle East crisis of 1973 was a particularly good example of U.S. policy makers
planning and making their decisions with an "effects-based mindset." They had an
objective in mind and were willing to employ a variety of methods to achieve that
objective, rather than incessantly pursuing one type of method (one of the elements of
ed infine l'estratto relativo alle forze aviotrasportate sovietiche:
The Soviets placed seven airborne divisions on alert and airlift was marshalled to transport them to the Middle East. An airborne command post was set up in the southern Soviet Union. Several air force units were also alerted. "Reports also indicated that at least one of the divisions and a squadron of transport planes had been moved from the Soviet Union to an airbase in Yugoslavia".
E' lungo, me ne rendo conto, spero che interessi